Thursday, December 29, 2005

Fluent Interfaces

I'd like to add to Paul's and Mike's posts regarding fluent interfaces.

I very much agree with them that this kind of method chaining allows to create very readable and intuitive interfaces. The million dollar question is when to actually use this kind of programming style.

Of course there are no definitive answers but I suggest to consider the following points:
a) Use your intuition. If you don't feel this will address the 95% of common use-case for using your interface, then it's probably not the right solution for what you're trying to accomplish.
b) As Paul noted, if in the common use-case you don't have all the necessary data available to complete the task in one go, you should think twice about doing it.
c) Probably the most important point: It really has to read well in your language (e.g. English), preferably as a complete sentence. If you can't read the code out aloud then it's probably not what you want. This is a good example of what I think reads well:

$sms->to("1650939202")
->
from("14082924021")
->
message("Will meet you at 8pm")

->
send()
;

d) You will usually want some form of error handling for your code. This kind of syntax pretty much forces you to use exception based error handling. Make sure that this suits your needs and application architecture.

Do you have any other suggestions for guidelines? I'd be happy to hear them.

15 comments:

  1. Andi, I think you would've enjoyed programming in HyperCard where you describe the program code in English ;-)
    Ex.
    set the cursor to "Watch"
    put the rect of cd btn "StatusBar" into Rect
    add 1 to item 1 of Rect

    Why not simply do send_sms_message($to, $from, $msg); or if you insist on OO $sms->send_sms_message($to,$from,$msg);

    In either case you'd get a Boolean indicator telling you if the operation was successful or not.

    ReplyDelete
  2. Aha. Good question. The reason is because you don't know how many parameters you'll have. This is meant for APIs which are pretty dynamic and you can leave stuff out quite optionally. I agree that for a static list of arguments a regular method call is suitable.

    ReplyDelete
  3. But again, if we keep it as one static method mapping the functionality on diagrams are going to be looking bad and diagrams become linear!

    Andi, the $sms object up there is just the simplest and optimal way of doing it, cuz it's simply mapable and readable. There are other ways where we could pass a dynamic array and call that our args right? but hey that's way too dynamic for us human beings to read or document.

    ReplyDelete
  4. But then you could also use arrays (or the non existant named parameters) ..

    However I presume when you are the type of person that considers chained interfaces you also like to use method overloading.

    Then again you could even iterate over the provided array and first set the values (which could all be handled with overloading) and then in the final step do whatever you must.

    So some extend the pdo execute() API is an example of that (though internally it obviously works much different than what I described above). You can either call bindParam() a bunch of times or just call execute() with an array of parameters to bind.

    So I guess this leaves the main draw back of using arrays as named parameters that for improperly structured arrays you dont get an automatic syntax error.

    ReplyDelete
  5. While, this is about an OO design pattern, I'm reminded of Delphi's "With" statement.

    Perhaps such a beast could be implemented within PHP for objects (Delphi allows other data types):

    with myObject do {
        ->member= value;
        ->member = value;
        ->method();
        ...
    }

    It would seem to offer the same readibility without the specialized coding just for the chaining.
    But then again I'm suggesting a language-level implementation which requires work that I'm not capable of doing.

    C. Drozdowski

    ReplyDelete
  6. I agree with Andi. Its better if you use

    $sms->field = value;
    $sms->submit();

    This way, you don't have to remember the order of parameters. for example:

    $sms->submit($field1, $field3, $field2);

    Just in case you use the 3rd parameter as 2nd. Or you could pass in an array if you choose to go against OOP:

    $params['field'] = "value";
    $params['field2'] = "value";
    sms_submit($params);

    ReplyDelete
  7. I use this "Technique" also. An example:

    $DO_Brands = new DataObjects_Brands();
    $DO_Brands->brand_id = 1;
    $DO_Brands->find();

    while ($DO_Brands->fetch()) {
    $brands[] = $DO_Brands->toArray();
    }

    print_r($brands);

    This example would print all the brands found in my database.

    Another example:

    $DO_Brands = new DataObjects_Brands();
    $DO_Brands->brand_id = 1;
    $DO_Brands->find();
    $DO_Brands->fetch();
    $DO_Brands->name = 'new brand name';
    $DO_Brands->update();

    This would update the field "name" in the database to the new name we have set.

    Pretty fun, isnt it :-)

    This can be seen as a fluent interface also, as it is very easy to read.

    ReplyDelete
  8. $DO_Brands = new DataObjects_Brands();
    $DO_Brands->brand_id = 1;
    $DO_Brands->find();

    while ($DO_Brands->fetch()) {
    $brands[] = $DO_Brands->toArray();
    }

    print_r($brands);

    with Rails ==>

    print Brand.find_all

    ------------------------

    $DO_Brands = new DataObjects_Brands();
    $DO_Brands->brand_id = 1;
    $DO_Brands->find();
    $DO_Brands->fetch();
    $DO_Brands->name = 'new brand name';
    $DO_Brands->update();

    with Rails:

    Brand.update(1, :name => 'new brand name')

    Now, which one is more readable and typeable?

    Fluent interfaces are intersesting though:

    rectangle.translate(100, 150).rotate(-30).fill('red')

    in a GD-like graphics package.

    ReplyDelete
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